The Buzz

Can America Prevent Russia from Using Low-Yield Nukes?

[12] “RF To Build 6 Nuclear Subs With Long-range Cruise Missiles,” ITAR-TASS, March 27, 2009. No longer available on the TASS webs-site, but Western press stories citing the ITAR-TASS report remain on the internet. “Russia to build 6 nuke subs with Cruise Missiles,” CNN, March 28, 2009, available at index.php?topic = 85048.0 World/.

[13] A video of Karber’s presentation is available at

[14] National Institute for Public Policy, “Section II Minimum Deterrence: Fragile Hope for Constant and Benign Threat Environment,” (Fairfax Va.: National Institute for Public Policy, September 2014,), p. 22, available at FOID/Reading%20Room/Other/Litigation%20Release%20-%20Section%20II%20Minimum%20Deterrence 20 Fragile%20Hope.pdf.

[15] Office of Russian and European Analysis, Central Intelligence Agency “Russia: [Deleted],” June 22, 2000, available at

[16] “About Snezhinsk,”, April 2013, available at snezinsk1.shtml.

[17] Vice Admiral (ret.) Robert Monroe, “Facing the grave nuclear risk,” The Washington Times, January 27, 2017, available at

[18] Pavel Felgenhauer, Russia Seeks to Impose New ABM Treaty on the US by Developing BMD,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, Volume 7, No. 136 (July 16, 2010), available at Ttnews[tt_news]=36624.

[19] “Russia: Comments by Deputy Defense Minister Ostapenko on Aerospace Defense Troops Programs Commentary by Interfaks-AVN, Moscow, 24 April: The New S-500 Air Defense Missile System Will Be Able To Effectively Combat Advanced Offensive Aerospace Weapons…” Interfax-AVN Online, April 26, 2013. (Translated by World News Connection).: “Regiment of S-400 to enter duty in Sevastopol in February 2018,” TASS, October 24, 2017, available at http://

[20] “Russian Armed Forces will get five S-400 air defense systems in September-October 2016,” TASS, February 29, 2016, available at “S-400 missile defense regiment takes up combat duty outside Moscow (VIDEO),” Sputnik News, January 11, 2017, available at 49464109-russia-s-400-moscow/.

[21] Nuclear Posture Review, op. cit., p. 53.