K2 Black Panther: The Tank North Korea Fears Most
The tank’s fire control system is a technology transfer from France’s Thales, so it is likely again using some Leclerc technology. As an advanced fire control system it is highly automated so even Korea’s conscript crews can learn it quickly. Once a target is acquired, the gun and turret can automatically track it without further human intervention. The K2 can also ford rivers up to 4.2 meters deep via a snorkel kit that doubles as a “conning” tower, something the Korean army learned from the 35 T-80Us it acquired from Russia back in the late ’90s.
The South Korean army has peculiar needs. For one, just across the Demilitarized Zone, North Korea possesses one of the largest tank armies in the world.
In this cauldron of densely packed military forces, both sides share a peninsula that is also very mountainous. During the Korean War, many battles were fought in places such as the Punchbowl, Pork Chop Hill, Old Baldy, Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge, just to name a few.
Any weapon built specifically to exploit the peninsula’s terrain would have an edge. So, when South Korea produced its first domestically designed tank, Seoul took the mountainous terrain into full account.
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South Korea started to think about modern main battle tanks in the late ’70s when North Korea began fielding T-62s with 115-millimeter guns — outmatching Seoul’s M-48 Pattons and their 90-millimeter guns.
Thus, the United States gave South Korea permission to domestically assemble a modified Abrams tank termed the K1. The K1, like the original Abrams, first sported a 105-millimeter gun. However, the K1 is smaller than the Abrams and it has a diesel rather than a gas turbine engine.
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The K1 also has an uncanny, superficial resemblance to the larger American tank, so much so that U.S. troops stationed in Korea nicknamed it the “baby Abrams.”
But South Korea owns very little of the technology behind the K1. Eighty percent of the components came from other countries, chiefly the United States. So while the K1 — which is still in service — outclasses anything the North Koreans have, South Korea wanted a new, domestically designed tank that would surpass any foreseeable North Korean threat.
Furthermore, the South Koreans wanted to own all the technology so they could export it.
The result was the K2 Black Panther.
Development started in 1995 and cost $260 million. In the end, South Korea designed a tank that on paper appears to be at equal, if not better than, the specifications of current NATO tanks.
To achieve this, the Koreans looked all over the world for inspiration, technology and know-how — and combined it all into a formidable machine that is distinctively Korean.
From Germany, South Korea developed its own version of the Rheinmetall 120-millimeter L55 gun, which is a full 1.3 meters longer than the 120-millimeter L44 caliber gun used on all Abrams tanks and older Leopard 2s. With a longer gun comes greater internal pressure, so the L55 gun has superior muzzle velocity.
From France, South Korea adopted its own version of the Leclerc’s autoloader. Shells are loaded from the back of the turret, via a machine gun-like belt, allowing it to fire 15 rounds a minute — if rounds are continuously fired and not accounting for target acquisition, reacquisition and lazing.
The tank’s fire control system is a technology transfer from France’s Thales, so it is likely again using some Leclerc technology. As an advanced fire control system it is highly automated so even Korea’s conscript crews can learn it quickly. Once a target is acquired, the gun and turret can automatically track it without further human intervention.
The K2 can also ford rivers up to 4.2 meters deep via a snorkel kit that doubles as a “conning” tower, something the Korean army learned from the 35 T-80Us it acquired from Russia back in the late ’90s.
Although the heart of a tank is its gun, the next most important component is its engine and transmission, collectively known as the “powerpack.” For this, South Korea again looked to Germany and its excellent MTU-890 V12 diesel 1,500 horsepower engine.
Unfortunately, cracking that nut turned out to be much harder, and it took Seoul seven years to finally reverse engineer an acceptable copy. The domestically designed engine has slightly worse acceleration versus the MTU — 0–32 kilometers per hour at nearly eight seconds, up from seven seconds. The first 100 K2s produced will have MTU engines and successive batches will sport Korean engines.
Yet, despite the foreign influences, there are some original native innovations.
The most noticeable is the tank’s hydropneumatic suspension. Originally developed on the K1, an improved version allows the K2 to lower or raise its profile. Like a “low riding” street car it can kneel, sit or “lean” in any direction.