Risky Ramifications of Egypt's Coup
It has been over a week since Egypt’s first democratically elected president was ousted by the Egyptian army after mass protests. But violence has already erupted between the followers of Mohamed Morsi and his opponents, the army and security forces, leading many commentators to speculate that Egypt is heading for civil war. The broader implications of the most recent crisis in the Middle East could be catastrophic—not just for Egypt but also for a region that is already teetering at the brink.
As the diverse opposition protesters were still celebrating after General Abdul Fattah el-Sisi announced that the constitution had been suspended and Mohamed Morsi was no longer president of Egypt, the country’s security services had already begun a crackdown against the Muslim Brotherhood. While Morsi and key members of his presidential team have been detained and brought to undisclosed locations, arrest warrants for an additional three hundred Muslim Brotherhood members and close Morsi allies were also issued. Moreover, five Islamist TV channels have so far been shut down, the Cairo offices of al-Jazeera have been raided and its managing director Ayman Gaballah arrested.
While the majority of the protesters who called for Morsi’s resignation continue to support the intervention by the army as a necessary measure to safeguard the 2011 revolution, tens of thousands of Morsi supporters have taken to the streets to voice their anger and demand the reinstatement of Morsi as president. Clashes between Morsi supporters and Islamists on the one side and Morsi opponents, the police forces and the military on the other have already resulted in fatalities approaching a hundred, with many thousands more injured.
Meanwhile, jihadists in the Sinai have blown up a pipeline transporting gas to Jordan. Three police officers were killed in a drive-by shooting. According to the Israeli intelligence-news website Debkafile, a secret Muslim Brotherhood cell, in cohorts with radical Salafists and Hamas, is planning a campaign of terror out of the Sinai directed against Israel and the Suez canal. And as reported in the Jerusalem Post, a Sinai-based jihadist group called Ansar Bayt al-Maqdes has claimed responsibility for firing two rockets at the Israeli city of Eilat (although Israeli security forces could not confirm that any rockets had indeed hit Eilat). In response to the incidents in the Sinai, the Egyptian army has already closed the border crossings with Gaza and Israel as well as, according to Debkafile, “all three underground passages running from the mainland to Sinai under the Suez Canal.”
As a result of the heavy-handed response by the security services against pro-Morsi demonstrators, the Muslim Brotherhood leadership is now openly calling for a full-fledged uprising against the army and the new interim government. After the killing of over fifty pro-Morsi protesters on Monday during a confrontation with security services outside the Republican Guard headquarters, where Morsi is suspected to be held, violence is set to further spiral out of control in the coming days.
If the new Egyptian political leadership and the army do not manage to get the security situation in Egypt under control immediately, and find some way to bring the Brotherhood back into the political fold, a civil war—or more realistically, a prolonged Islamist insurgency—may become inevitable. It might, however, already be too late, as the Brotherhood’s rejection of the announced timetable for new elections by interim president Adly Mansour indicates.
So what are the wider implications of what has transpired in Egypt since last Wednesday? An immediate danger lies in the possibility that the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamists will conclude from this episode that while democracy brought them to power, it won’t keep them there. They might even decide that since not even the self-professed liberals and secularists have played by the rules, it is now time to forsake the democratic process altogether and instead revert to the old game of authoritarian politics and survival of the fittest, where political power falls to the strongest or the most violent party.
The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt has in many ways been considered the mother movement of all Islamists and of Islamic revivalism more generally—and as such has been held in a very high esteem. Also, obtaining power in Egypt has remained prominent on the agenda of the Muslim Brotherhood movement, since it regards Egypt as a potentially powerful weapon in the pursuit of its regional goals. Pushed against the wall in Egypt, and facing the possibility of a similar fate in Tunisia, Libya, Jordan, Yemen and Syria, where it is also threatened by the opposition it faces from secularists, liberals and former (or current) regime loyalists, the Brotherhood may now decide to make common cause with more radical Salafist groups.
It previously shied away from going down this route, arguably because it did not want to jeopardise its improving international reputation, and because its was the main beneficiary of the democratic opening in the wake of the Arab Spring. But if the Brotherhood now decides that democracy no longer works, it could be tempted to pursue its ultimate goal of a reconstituted Islamic caliphate by more radical means and in partnership with the Salafists.