In the early 1930s, the Luftwaffe didn’t exist as an institutional entity. Memory of the bombings of London remained fresh in British minds, and the Treaty of Versailles established stark limits on German airpower. As part of Germany’s military breakout in the mid-1930s (tolerated in part because of Western concerns about the Soviet Union), the Nazi regime established the Luftwaffe in 1935 as the air service of the German military. It would only remain in existence for ten years, but during that period in helped change the map of Europe.
Armies and navies began taking advantage of lighter-than-air craft during the nineteenth century. In the Italo-Turkish War of 1911, the first heavier-than-air craft began dropping bombs on enemy positions. Only a few years later, massive bombers could take off from German-controlled airfields and drop their bombs on London, even as swarms of fighters and attack planes tangled over the Western Front.
(This first appered in 2015.)
Today, airpower plays a constitutive role in almost every conceivable military action. Military aviation, thus, has a short but consequential history. This article examines five organizations that have most effectively wielded airpower as tools of national strategy and survival.
On April 1, 1918, the British government combined the Royal Flying Corps (part of the British Army) and the Royal Naval Air Service (a component of the Royal Navy) into a single organization, the Royal Air Force. The RAF became the world’s first organizationally independent air force, untethered to the concerns of either land or sea commanders.
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The Royal Air Force struggled for most of the 1920s and 1930s with its sister services for funding and relevance. These struggles left almost everyone worse off; British naval aviation in particular suffered, but the need to demonstrate political relevance left all of the services unprepared for the war that came in 1939. Nevertheless, the Fighter Command of the RAF performed brilliantly during the war, helping to defeat the German air campaign in the Battle of Britain, then supporting efforts to retake Nazi-held territory. Coastal Command devastated German coastal shipping while also helping to defeat the German submarine offensive in the Atlantic.
Since the end of the war the RAF has remained an important global force, supporting British and coalition military operations around the world. Although it no longer plays a meaningful strategic role (the last bombers retired decades ago), the fighter-bombers of the RAF continue to contribute to the defense of NATO.
The United States Air Force came into existence on September 18, 1947, taking the mantle of the United States Army Air Force, the U.S. Army Air Service, and the U.S. Army Signal Corps. Between 1941 and 1945, the USAAF provided the greater portion of the airpower that helped win victory against Japan, and especially Germany. Diversions into strategic bombing notwithstanding, the USAAF provided a critical part of the airpower that the Allies needed to win the war.
The immediate post-war saw destructive fights within the U.S. military establishment, but led to Air Force independence. Although a fixation on its strategic mission hamstrung the Air Force in Korea and Vietnam , it nevertheless played a key role in facilitating U.S. military operations in both conflicts. After Vietnam, the Air Force developed some of its most successful warplanes, including the F-15 Eagle, F-16 Viper, and A-10 Warthog.
Today, the U.S. Air Force in undoubtedly the most powerful air force on the planet. Its strike, logistical, and air superiority capabilities have enabled the United States to fight, at great advantage, anywhere in the world. Although questions abound about how the United States has decided to structure its airpower, the USAF remains the standard by which other air forces are judged.
The United States Navy first flew an aircraft from a warship in 1911, with a makeshift deck fastened to the cruiser USS Birmingham. Naval aviation grew substantially in the interwar period, taking advantage of the restrictions of the Washington Naval Treaty to build or convert half a dozen large aircraft carriers. The USN carrier program survived the inter- service conflicts that characterized interwar military aviation much more successfully than its British counterpart.
In World War II, U.S. naval aviators helped win the Battle of the Atlantic, protecting convoys from U-boats and destroying countless German submarines. In the Pacific, U.S. naval aviators froze the Japanese offensive in its tracks at Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal, and led the massive offensives of 1943 and 1944 that rolled back Japanese gains and brought the war to the home islands. At its height, the USN operated over a hundred carriers of various sizes, along with numerous floatplanes, land-based aircraft, and even a few strategic bombers dedicated to anti-submarine purposes.