(Washington, D.C.) They can take out targets faster than enemies can respond by destroying a wide range of air, sea, land and space targets. Traveling at five-times the speed of sound, they are nearly impossible to defend against and place fighter jets, ships, ground vehicles, satellites and ground assets at tremendous risk of nearly instant destruction -- they are hypersonic weapons.
Naturally, the risks and advantages of these weapons, many of which are basically here, are inspiring the military services to massively fast-track hypersonics development. For instance, the Army Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory are now working closely together to develop hypersonics and, among other things, engineer on a new-generation of hypersonic weapons designed to come after the currently emerging arsenal. This would expand hypersonic mission options in new directions and introduce new air vehicle configurations.
This Army-Air Force collaborative effort includes a wide range of probing scientific research efforts, weapons prototyping, exploration of new materials, experimentation and the pursuit of innovative manufacturing strategies such as “additive manufacturing” or 3D printing. The Army Research Laboratory is, for instance, experimenting with existing materials as well as new combinations of metals and other substances.
“We need high strength and high toughness materials. Hypersonic weapons are traveling very fast. They get hot enough to melt most metals, so you need a way to mitigate that. Additive manufacturing can help,” Dr. Brandon A. McWilliams, Materials Engineer, Lead for Metals Added Manufacturing, Army Research Lab, Combat Capabilities Development Command, told Warrior in an interview, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.
There are many advantages to 3D printing, which include an ability to engineer entirely new structures and material combinations first developed through advanced computer modeling. While early on in its development, 3D printing is already showing great promise, as it utilizes an advanced and well-refined technical method using powdered material, lasers and systems able to shape layered material. Many of the materials used in the process are still being certified and qualified.
“You are laying down one layer at a time from a digital data file. You have a digital model of whatever part you want to make...then you make slices of it,” McWilliams explained. “With additive manufacturing you can create complex geometries. You can change the wall thickness or lattice structures inside to reinforce it. A lattice structure is basically like a cellular structure, so if you think of an atomic arrangement structure as a honeycomb structure.”
The Pentagon and military services are already having some success with accelerated hypersonic weapons testing and development, yet there is still much work to be done when it comes to refining the technology needed for current and future hypersonic weapons flight. As discussed by McWilliams, engineering weapons to move at five times the speed of sound relies upon an ability to manage, and in effect minimize, the heat of the weapons. Excessive heat at that speed can not only incinerate the weapon such that it cannot fly but can also disrupt or derail its flight trajectory.
Therefore, the fundamental challenge with hypersonic flight resides in this need to manage the extreme temperatures reached at those speeds, factors which can prevent, complicate or disable successful hypersonic flight. An area of focus within this sphere of inquiry, AFRL and ARL developers tell warrior, relates to several complex aerodynamic challenges, such as managing the air flow surrounding the vehicle in flight. Referred to by scientists as a “boundary layer,” the air flow characteristics of a hypersonic weapon’s flight trajectory greatly impact the stability of the system - much of which relates to temperature.
“You can print things like conformal heat exchangers, which are ways to integrate cooling within a structure itself to help maintain a lower temperature,” McWilliams said.
Working in close concert with Army scientists and weapons developers, the Air Force is moving quickly to better understand the heat flux on hypersonic weapons. This will allow us to do optimization on thermal management,” Tim Sakulich, Air Force Research Lab, Director of Materials and Manufacturing and Lead on Implementing the Air Force S&T Strategy, told Warrior in an interview last Fall at an Air Force Association Symposium. “We are designing these systems to provide the speed, reach and lethality we are looking for.”
The science of air flow boundary layers is extremely complex, yet it does align with several key aerodynamic concepts related to hypersonic flight stability. Simply put, engineers are looking to create advanced hypersonic weapons which generate a “laminar” or smooth air-flow boundary layer, as opposed to a “turbulent” air-flow. The more movement, mixing or agitation in the air flow surrounding the air vehicle in flight, often consisting of movement or particle collisions in the air flow, the more turbulent it becomes, according to an essay from the University of Sydney’s School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering. (Australia).
“A boundary layer may be laminar or turbulent. A laminar boundary is one where the flow takes place in layers...each layer slides past the adjacent layers. This is in contrast to turbulent boundary layers, where there is intense agitation,” the 2005 essay states.
Of particular significance, the essay explains that turbulent boundary layers generate very high “heat transfer rates.”
“Packets of fluid may be seen moving across.(in turbulent boundary layers) Thus there is an exchange of mass, momentum and energy on a much bigger scale compared to a laminar boundary layer,” the Univ. of Sydney essay states.
In summary, as opposed to microscopic exchanges in mass known to occur in laminar boundary layers, turbulent boundary layers involve mixing across layers on a macroscopic level, the paper explains.
All of this leads to a current area of focus for scientists, who are experimenting with more ways to ensure laminar air-flow boundaries surround hypersonic flight vehicles. Laminar boundary layers are needed to advance hypersonic flight to a new generation, according to a significant paper from NASA, the AFRL and Case Western Reserve University called “Recommendation for Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition Flight Testing.” .
“In regards to a next-generation hypersonic vehicle, the design goal would be to maintain a laminar boundary layer for as long as possible in order to minimize heating. Small perturbations to the boundary layer can excite various instability modes ,” the essay states. (NASA Langley Research Center, Air Force Research Laboratory, Case Western Reserve University… Scott Berry, Roger Kimmel, Eli Reshotko)
Increased heat can bring challenges; it strengthens the weapon's thermal signature, making it easier for sensors to track. Heat challenges can also introduce difficulties by creating a need to engineer a weapon able to withstand the heat levels and remain intact during high speed flight. For this reason, hypersonic weapons -- and ICBMs as well -- are constructed with specially engineered heat-resistant materials. Sakulich emphasized that current AFRL work is, along these lines, focused on finding newer composite materials.
Improving hypersonic propulsion will not only improve the effectiveness and resiliency of existing weapons but also enable different form factors such as larger, longer or differently shaped attack weapons. The NASA-AFRL-Case Western essay, for instance, introduces the additional technical complexity that might be needed to advance hypersonic flight stability for “re-entry” bodies, such as those used on a nuclear-armed missile.
“Generally, the application of this knowledge (boundary layer management) has been restricted to simple shapes like plates, cones and spherical bodies. However, flight reentry vehicles are in reality never simple,” the NASA, AFRL essay states.
For example, rougher surface material or weapons vehicle’s with less linear configurations present additional complicating variables believed to impact the stability of hypersonic flight. Engineering scientific methods for increasing the laminar boundary layer properties of hypersonic vehicles, it seems apparent, could help lay a foundation for newer, next-generation hypersonic configurations, such as differently shaped drones or weapons with various warheads.
An interesting RAND essay, called “Hindering the Spread of a New Class of Weapons,” explains that heat signatures are impacted by the shape, size, velocity and trajectory of a weapon.
“The larger the nose radius, the smaller the heat transfer on the nose of the vehicle. Trajectory shaping, i.e., velocity and altitude, can also be used to manage the total heat transfer on an RV (Re-entry Vehicle) while meeting other input requirements and constraints, e.g.,range, maximum deceleration, and time of flight. Hypersonic weapons have different constraints and requirements compared with reentry bodies. HGVs(Hypersonic Glide Vehicles) and HCMs(Hypersonic Cruise Missiles) will tend to have sharp leading edges, i.e.,a small nose radius, which will increase the heat transfer,” the essay states. (RAND - Speier, Nacouzi, Lee)
Also, most hypersonic weapons need to travel for long periods of time at high speeds, when compared to a re-entry body travelling at hypersonic speed.. therefore…”two of the major parameters in the total heat equation, velocity and time, cannot generally be reduced,” the RAND paper states.
The overall hypersonic weapons evolution, you could call it, is entirely consistent with the Air Force long-term hypersonic strategy, which does call for a “stair-step” strategic approach to hypersannics. First, as expected, is hypersonic weapons, an effort which is now on track to emerge in just the next few years. Secondly, a former Air Force Chief Scientist(Dr. Gregory Zacharias) told Warrior in an interview several years ago, the service hopes to engineer hypersonic “drones” for ISR or attack, to be followed by “recoverable drones” over the next several decades. These developments, however, may require many more years of research and technical progress to come to fruition, providing some of the inspiration for some of the current boundary layer scientific work described by Sakulich.