Nasr's conclusion examines "the battle for the Middle East" within the framework of his basic conclusion that the heart of this battle is the historic conflict between Sunnis and Shi‘a. In this conclusion, Nasr tends to speak of Sunni extremism and argues that the "Shia revival constitutes the most powerful resistance and challenge to Sunni extremism and jihadi activism within the region. Shia revival is an anti-Wahhabi and anti-extremist force." In this picture of the Sunni-Shi‘a conflict, Nasr gives less attention to Shi‘a extremism as manifested in the actions of the Mahdi Army of Moqtada Sadr. While the senior Shi‘a leadership in Iraq, as represented by Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, is a significant force in reducing extremism and providing support for democracy, the more radical Shi‘a elements are also a major factor in determining the level of sectarian violence.
The Shi‘a revival is an important element in the battle for the future of the Middle East. The two major events in this development are the Islamic revolution in Iran and then, more dramatically, the Shi‘a responses to the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime. Vali Nasr presents a persuasive case for the necessity of giving attention to the increasing tensions between Sunnis and Shi‘a resulting from this revival. He rightly places these tensions in the context of virtually 14 centuries of contestation. However, he paints a picture of historic continuity while providing the information to show that while the Sunni-Shi‘a conflict has important continuities, many of the elements of the current conflict are manifestations of new factors, especially in Iraq. The current conflicts between the militant Sunni successors to Zarqawi and activist Shi‘a, like Moqtada Sadr, may have old labels and arouse old prejudices, but they are also new-style conflicts utilizing old symbols to mobilize support.
However, in the current competition, as Nasr emphasizes, democracy is now the policy advocated by Shi‘a in many areas. He argues that "democracy will unleash the full extent of the Shia challenge to Sunni extremism. Democracy will bring to power Shia majorities and give greater voice to Shia minorities." The transformation of the political position of Shi‘a from marginalized minority to advocates of democracy is a remarkable development reflected in the novelty of the current Shi‘a revival.
John O. Voll is a professor of Islamic history at Georgetown University.