George Bush and the Spring of 1989

November 10, 2014 Topic: History Region: United States

George Bush and the Spring of 1989

Twenty-five years ago, a new president and his national security team pondered Europe on the eve of revolutions.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Robert B. Zoellick, “An Architecture of U.S. Strategy after the Cold War,” in In Uncertain Times: American Foreign Policy after the Berlin Wall and 9/11, Melvyn P. Leffler and Jeffrey Legro (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011), 28.

[26] For a vivid description of this campaign, see Sidney Blumenthal, Pledging Allegiance: The Last Campaign of the Cold War (New York: Harper, 1991).

[27] Baker with DeFrank, Politics of Diplomacy, 55.

[28] Zapis' Besedy A.N Jakovleva S federal'nym kantslerom FRG G. Kolem, January 9, 1989, in Aleksandr Yakovlev, Perestrojka: 1985-1991. Neizdannoe, maloiz- vestnoe, zabytoe (Moscow: MGD, 2008), 302.

[29] Zagladin to Gorbachev, June 22, 1989, Fond 5, Document 7223, Archive of the Gorbachev Foundation.

[30] Quoted in Ann Devroy, “Bush and Baker Disclaim Cheney’s Gorbachev View,” Washington Post, May 1,1989, A15.

[31] Cable from Jack Matlock to State Department, "U.S.-Soviet Relations: Policy Opportunities," February 22,1989, in Masterpieces of History: The Peaceful End of the Cold War in Europe, ed. Svetlana Savranskaya, Thomas Blanton, and Vladislav Zubok (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2010), 401.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Philip Zelikow and Condoleezza Rice, Germany Unified and Europe Trans­formed: A Study in Statecraft (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), 27.

[34] Ibid., 28

[35] Ibid.

[36] “Written Responses to Questions Submitted by the Kyodo News Service of Japan,” February 16, 1989, available at

[37] Zoellick to Baker, “NATO Summit—Possible Initiatives (Zoellick draft for Baker)”; May 15, 1989; James A. Baker Papers, box 108, Public Policy Papers, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey.

[38] Ibid.

[39] George H. W Bush, “Remarks at the Texas A&M University Commencement Ceremony in College Station,” May 12, 1989,

[40] Ibid.

[41] George H. W Bush, “Remarks to the Citizens in Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany,” May 31, 1989, available at

[42] Memo, Nancy Bearg Dyke to Brent Scowcroft, June 27, 1989, 1, OA/ID 91124-009, Brent Scowcroft Collection, George Bush Presidential Library.