Russia’s Role in the US Elections: The Case for Caution

Russia’s Role in the US Elections: The Case for Caution

The conclusion that Russia hacked its way toward a Trump victory is no slam dunk, despite its plausibility.

[9] “The Perfect Weapon: How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S.,” The New York Times, 13 December 2016,

[10] “Bears in the Midst: Intrusion into the Democratic National Committee,”, June 15, 2016

[11] “Sofacy Phishing,” Cyber Threat Operations, Tactical Intelligence Bulletin, October 22 2014, Price Waterhouse Coopers,

[12] “The Paradox of Russia’s Support for Trump,” Wilson Center, November 10 2016,

[13] “Chinese Cyber Espionage,” Testimony of James C. Mulvenon before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China hearing entitled “Hearing on Chinese Hacking: Impact on Human Rights and Commercial Rule of Law,” 25 June 2013, accessed at

[14] “The First Cyber Espionage Attacks: How Operation Moonlight Maze made history,” July 7 2016, accessed at

[15] “Don’t be so sure Russia hacked the Clinton emails,” James Bamford, Reuters, 2 November 2016, accessed at

[16] “Report to the President of the United States,” The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, March 31, 2005, p. 180.

[17] “Vladimir Putin accuses Hillary Clinton of encouraging Russian protests,” Miriam Elder, The Guardian, 8 December 2011,

[18] “Ukraine Crisis: Transcript of leaked Nuland-Pyatt Call,” BBC News, 7 February 2014,

[19] “White House says U.S. will retaliate against Russia for hacking,” Louis Nelson, Politico, October 11 2016,

[20] Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Princeton University Press, 1976, p. 65.

[21] Jervis, p. 62.