Key point: The Germans created many innovative assault rifles that would clearly influence the invention of the AK-47.
With the conflict in Iraq, combat photography is once again prevalent in the media, and it would be impossible to miss images of U.S. soldiers toting the omnipresent M4 weapons system. Based on the venerated M-16 assault rifle (now redubbed the M2), this “system” provides the infantryman with a versatile set of interchangeable assets, which augment his weapon’s mission—eliminating the enemy from the battlefield. This system is state-of-the-art, but its origin dates back nearly 60 years to the early days of World War II Germany.
The MP-43/44: The First Assault Rifle
The granddaddy of the M-16, in fact the progenitor of all the world’s assault rifles, is the German MP-44 Sturmgewehr (assault rifle). Its development stemmed from an unusual episode in the history of German armaments production. After the trench warfare of World War I, it was apparent that a new era of infantry combat was dawning. The German solider had been armed with some variant of the bolt-action Mauser rifle since the 1870s, and by the early 1930s, as Germany secretly rearmed in defiance of the Versailles Treaty, all weapons were subjected to scrutiny, especially infantry small arms.
While it was determined that the bolt-action Mauser, with its extended two-mile range and limited five-round magazine, was no longer valid on the modern battlefield, what to replace it with was a vexing question. Close combat, rapid fire, and overwhelming force were evolving as the paradigm, but submachine guns of the period, which fulfilled these requirements for the most part, were still expensive and relatively slow to produce. It appeared that a hybrid of some sort, which combined the rifle’s accuracy with the submachine gun’s high ammunition capacity and rapid rate of fire, would be an effective companion for the modern infantryman.
This would seemingly have necessitated the development of a new cartridge, but retooling of the highly standardized German munitions industry was not a desirable option, so development of this new weapon faced several hurdles. However, as has been proven over the centuries, if any group was up to a daunting task in weapons design, it was German ordnance experts.
Designing a New Cartridge
The studies that created this imperative for a new rifle showed that most contemporary infantry combat was taking place within a 300- to 400-yard range. This called for a reduced-size cartridge that delivered power and accuracy within a shorter field of fire. This theory was subsequently proven during the Spanish Civil War, as battle reports showed that critical points in many firefights demanded superior and overwhelming firepower to carry the assault. A smaller cartridge also had the added benefit that the infantryman could carry more ammunition than had previously been possible.
Specifications for the weapon that would utilize this new cartridge were developed and published in 1941 by the HwaA (Heereswaffenamt, or Army Weapons Office), and two established arms manufacturers emerged at the head of the competition, Walther and Haenel. The Haenel design was deemed the most meritorious, perhaps because the Haenel-Schmeisser team had been experimenting with reduced-load cartridges for some time, which clearly gave them the upper hand in understanding how the weapon firing such cartridges should work. The Haenel system was also the simpler of the two, better lending itself toward standardization and speed of manufacture.
The cartridge that was ultimately developed as the standard for this new breed of rifle was the 7.92mm Kurz Patrone, or “short cartridge.” It managed to maintain the same caliber as the ubiquitous 8mm Mauser cartridge, thus happily avoiding any major manufacturing retrofit, and accomplished the goal of reducing the range by shortening the case from 57mm to 33mm. This still left enough powder load and a large enough caliber round to be hard-hitting and lethal.
From Mbk42 to MP-43: The Evolution of the Sturmgewehr
The first model developed by Haenel and designed largely by Hugo Schmeisser premiered in 1942 and was designated the Mkb42 Karabiner (or carbine). It was apparent from this rough draft that a new type of weapon had entered the domain of infantry combat, as it shattered all previous conceptions of small arms design. The gas piston system was revolutionary in its configuration for automatic small arms; however, a similar system existed in the United States M1 Garand semiautomatic rifle.
Most previously designed automatic small arms had functioned as blowbacks in which the explosion of the bullet drove the bolt rearward, simultaneously, ejecting the spent round. As the bolt returned forward, it picked up the new round and the forward motion of the bolt drove the fixed firing pin into the new cartridge. This system required firing from an “open bolt” position, with the bolt cocked all the way rearward and engaged in that position before the first round of a series was to be fired.
To be at an extreme “ready” position required keeping the bolt cocked and open, exposing the firing chamber to the elements. Initially, the Mkb42 did not differ from this accepted design feature. The gas piston system did, however, harness the explosive power of the cartridge in the gun’s gas tube, using this force to drive the piston backward. The carrier engaged the bolt on this backward movement and picked up and ejected the spent cartridge, reloading a new one on its return forward. Although more efficient, this design still required firing from an open bolt.
A new weapon required a new method of manufacturing, and the majority of parts for the Mkb42 were produced by a variety of subcontractors and assembled at the main factory. This weapon was also revolutionary in that it was made of stamped and pressed metal rather than the highly machined components of the past. The intended goal was to simplify and streamline production, having all the parts manufactured on parallel but independent tracks, so the completion of one component was not dependent on any other and did not impact the production line.
Problems coordinating these vendors led to initial underdelivery by Haenel in accordance with the contract specifications, but these issues were soon resolved. Runner-up Walther joined in production of the weapon, and by February 1943 the powerhouse team exceeded the quota of 1,000 weapons per month by 217. The initial idea to fit the weapons with a bayonet lug was discarded as unnecessary and time-consuming.
Walther, however, was not finished with its contribution to the new weapon. It was decided after some trials to replace the original open bolt striker pattern of the Haenel design with the more effective hammer-fired trigger system of the Walther design. This further refinement now allowed the Mkb42 to be fired from a “closed bolt” position, because with the integral spring-driven striker the bolt no longer relied on forward momentum to drive the firing pin into the chambered cartridge. This kept the bolt closed at all times except when firing, thus protecting the chamber from the elements. An ejector-port cover was added for additional protection. It was spring loaded and popped open upon cycling of the bolt. This feature is one of the most recognizable carryovers to the M-16/M2 rifle. After these further modifications, the weapon was renamed the MP-43, or Maschinen Pistole 43.
Produced Behind Hitler’s Back?
The favorite myth of the MP-43 is that it was developed behind Hitler’s back and that it was accepted only after trials on the Eastern Front had troops clamoring for it. This tale is based in some partial truths.
Having fought in World War I, Hitler was a traditionalist and favored the reliable and accurate Mauser rifle. He was also a major advocate of the previously mentioned standardization theory of munitions manufacture. These two notions flew in the face of the assault rifle concept. Thus, while the development program was not hidden from Hitler in the literal sense, the weapon’s initial designation of Karabiner (carbine) shared the same nomenclature as the standard bolt-action Mauser infantry rifle, the Kar98 or Karabiner (18)98, and on the surface was meant to appear as an attempt to improve the K98 rather than to develop a whole new generation of weapons.
Even upon its eventual evolution from the Mkb42, the fear of revealing the true nature of the project was evident in the designation of the radically different new design as a Maschinen Pistole (machine pistol) as it was known that Hitler approved of the MP-40 submachine gun. The MP-43 was obviously neither rifle nor submachine gun, but a deadly spawn of both. Weighing in at a hefty 13 pounds, the MP-43 boasted an effective range of 600 meters, a rate of fire of 500-600 rounds per minute, and a muzzle velocity of 2,200 feet per second.
The first test in battle for this new weapon is often attributed to the defenders of the Kholm Pocket in February 1942, but in fact no Mkb42 had yet been delivered, let alone the MP-43. This was most likely the Gewehr 41 semiautomatic rifle. The first true field test of the newly designated MP-43 came in the spring of 1943 when troops of the SS Division Wiking were armed with it. The gun was an immediate success, displaying an impressive combination of firepower and controlability.