The Heavy Gustav fired a total of 48 shots at Sevastopol, mostly on Soviet forts. It never fired in anger again. Berlin blew more than 1,000 tons of steel, thousands of man-hours and millions of Reichsmarks for just 48 shots in a war where steel, labor and treasure were in limited supply. In other words, it was a technical marvel but a military folly. In the years to come, rockets, atomic weapons and heavy bombers would offer the same functions as the Gustav with greater mobility, range and firing rates.
War trains dominated combat for more than 100 years. Massive railborne artillery shelled the enemy while trains unloaded troops and supplies. For a brief moment, the terrifying machines were the most powerful weapon on the battlefield. But technology advanced.
Improvements to tanks, cars and planes during World War II marked the twilight of the war train. The great trains of the First World War still dominated the imagination, however, and the Nazis built impressive — but impractical — railborne cannons.
The German Heavy Gustav was the largest gun ever built. It was more than 150 feet long, 40 feet tall and weighed almost 1,500 tons. The steel giant Krupp A.G. made only two, and neither worked well.
The weapon derived from experience. After witnessing the success of other railway guns, the German High Command asked Krupp’s engineers to design a weapon to destroy the French border fortifications along the Maginot Line.
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The Gustav’s barrel alone was more than 100 feet long and fired 31-inch-wide, 12-foot-long shells at an effective ranges of 20 miles. The ammo came in two varieties — a five-ton explosive round and a seven-ton armor piercer.
But the impressively massive superweapons were dinosaurs. It was too bulky, took too long to fire and required hundreds of troops to operate. For centuries, better artillery meant bigger artillery, but that changed during World War II.
Decades of history led up to the Heavy Gustav — successively larger and heavier railway guns leading to the biggest of them all.
The Confederacy deployed the world’s first railway gun during the American Civil War. The rebels attached a naval artillery cannon to a chassis and used it to harry the Union during the Battle of Savage’s Station.
During World War I, the Entente powers converted large naval guns and defensive cannons into railborne artillery to pound German fortifications along the Western Front. Germany had its own fleet of long-range artillery pieces and the Entente powers soon feared the thundering crack of the Paris Gun.
This 211-millimeter cannon bombarded Paris with 243-pound shells from 75 miles away. Each shot took up to three minutes to reach its target as the shell soared through the stratosphere. The gun rode the rails, but could only fire from special concrete firing installations.
On Good Friday, 1918, one of the gun’s shells landed on a church in Paris and killed 91 people. It was a fluke — the gun had a targeting tolerance measured in miles. The citizens of France feared German Zeppelins were dropping bombs on them from the sky.
The Paris Gun was a morale-breaking precursor to the terrifying V-weapons of World War II. It also inspired a new generation of German heavy artillery — including the Gustav — during the interwar period. The Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, specifically banned heavy artillery and required the German government to hand over a complete Paris Gun.
The government didn’t comply. Instead, Krupp’s engineers refined the design. They fixed the barrel, expanding the caliber from 21 to 28 centimeters. This improved the accuracy but reduced the range from 80 miles to a still-impressive 40 miles. Krupp called the refined gun the K-5.
Krupp pushed more than 20 K-5s into service beginning in 1936. American troops faced two — nicknamed Robert and Leopold — during the January 1944 amphibious invasion of Anzio, Italy. The 218-ton monstrosities destroyed more than 1,500 tons of ammunition, damaged Allied ships and fired more than 5,500 shells onto the American beachhead.
The Paris Gun and its successor could only fire straight ahead, required engineers to lay down curved tracks to help aim the weapon and took several minutes to reload. Despite these problems, the guns were a devastating success.
The Heavy Gustav was not.
France poured money and concrete into fortifying the Franco-German border in 1934. Berlin needed a weapon to bust the Maginot bunkers and it commissioned Krupp to build it. Krupp’s solution was the Heavy Gustav, a gun so massive it had to run on twin sets of tracks.
Hitler approved the the production of the first Heavy Gustav in 1937 and allocated 10 million Reichsmarks — about $67 million today — to the project.