Taiwan Watching Crimea with Nervous Eye Toward Beijing
Days ahead of a referendum that could result in the loss of the southern territory of Crimea to Russia, Taiwan, which like Ukraine lives in the shadow of a great power, is watching closely to see whether Moscow’s gambit could embolden Beijing to adopt similar strategies toward the island democracy.
While Crimea serves as an imperfect analogy for Taiwan’s situation, there are enough parallels to warrant an exploration of the current crisis and its denouement to determine if they can possibly create a precedent for Chinese behavior. Key to this effort is the fact that both Moscow and Beijing have notions of the “Near Abroad”—that is, territories that, while foreign and sovereign, their governments regard as fair game.
Sunday’s referendum, which will occur under the shadow of the Russian military, only presents two options: “Are you in favor of the reunification of Crimea with Russia as a part of the Russian Federation?” and “Are you in favor of restoring the 1992 Constitution and the status of Crimea as a part of Ukraine?”—a Constitution that for all intents and purposes would give rise to an independent, albeit pro-Moscow, state within Ukraine.
The situation in Taiwan, which according to Beijing’s version of history was “stolen” from China at the conclusion of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, is vaguely similar, though the proportion of citizens who identify as ethnically Chinese is substantially lower than that of Crimeans who identify as Russians. Support for unification with the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which has dropped steadily over the years, now stands in the single digits, while desire for independence has gradually risen, with a preference for maintaining the status quo remaining the preferred option—at least as long as China threatens force should the island declare de jure independence, a not insignificant factor in poll responses.
While circumstantial, it is interesting to note that both Crimea and Taiwan are haunted by the year 1992—the “1992 Constitution” and the “1992 Consensus”—under arrangements that are meant to curtail the choices of the peoples involved (under the so-called 1992 consensus, both sides agree that there is only one China, though both agree to disagree on what “one China” means).
Ultimately, support figures on unification do not matter much to the undemocratic regimes who claim the territories. As long as there are groups within the regions that identify as ethnically Russian or Chinese—hence Beijing’s emphasis on the shared ancestry of Chinese “compatriots” across the Taiwan Strait and claims that independence supporters are a “small group of extremists”—their governments will be able to justify taking military action as a defensive, if not humanitarian, measure. As journalist Edward Lucas writes in The New Cold War, “It is always possible that the Kremlin will start provocations in Crimea or the Baltic states, and then claim the right to intervene to protect compatriots from the depredations of ‘extremists.’” This is exactly what Moscow has articulated in recent weeks, arguing that the troop deployments were in response to the Ukrainian ultranationalists who took over in Kiev following the revolution.
Western inaction is being noted by Beijing, which has sided with Russia in the present crisis. Those are issues where, bluntly put, perceived weakness invites aggression, and where a lack of self-confidence among the alliance of democratic nations is resulting in the dismemberment of free countries.
What is truly worrying when it comes to Taiwan is the fact that these developments occur at a time of intensifying Chinese pressure on Taipei, which is being compelled into signing various agreements that risk being detrimental to Taiwan’s ability to retain its sovereign status. While the détente witnessed during President Ma Ying-jeou’s first term (2008-2012) mostly touched on nonpolitical issues such as cross-Strait trade, tourism, crime-fighting, banking and so on, his second (and last) term, which coincides with the rise of Xi Jinping, has been plagued by controversy as the public grows increasingly wary of the political undertones of the next series of agreements sought by Beijing. Facing elevated opposition by legislators and civil society, the Ma administration has hardened its line with increased reliance on law enforcement to counter peaceful protesters and has frequently made a travesty of public hearings and other mechanisms associated with liberal democracies. This, in turn, has served to exacerbate frustrations within the country, with possible repercussions for social stability.