Making U.S.-Turkey Relations Great Again?
Turkey held its most important referendum in history last Sunday, April 16. President Erdogan’s dream of an executive presidency seemed to come true, as 51 percent of voters said yes. The new president, scheduled to be elected in 2019, will have unprecedented powers as the head of Turkey’s government. However, opposition parties immediately challenged the results, and international monitors expressed their concerns. President Erdogan rejects these critiques, and has dismissed any criticism of his victory. Erdogan was particularly dismissive of his international audience, telling Europe specifically, “We’ll continue on our path. . . . This country has carried out the most democratic elections, not seen anywhere in the West.”
Erdogan’s colorful rhetoric and confident swagger may have something to do with the fact that after the results of the referendum were released but not officially confirmed, President Trump was the first Western leader to congratulate President Erdogan. According to the White House, Trump congratulated Erdogan for his victory and spent forty-five entire minutes discussing regional issues, including challenges in Syria and Iraq. Trump also thanked Erdogan for supporting last week’s U.S. missile attack on Syria, launched in response to a chemical attack by Syrian government forces on Syrian civilians. The exchange has sparked debate in Washington, as many observers suggested the U.S. government should speak up and acknowledge the opposition’s objections and concerns with the results. State Department acting spokesman Mark Toner replied, “We look to the government of Turkey to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of all its citizens.” While mixed messages are nothing new for U.S.-Turkey relations, the fundamental character and tone of the Trump administration’s treatment of Turkey thus far seems to be different.
It is still too early to judge a new approach towards Turkey from the Trump administration, but after Secretary of State Tillerson’s visit to Turkey, Trump’s phone call and Erdogan’s recently announced visit to Washington in the middle of May, there is a clear need for a coherent U.S. message and strategy towards Turkey. How the interagency will interact with the Trump White House to manage the areas of cooperation and differences, and who will have the most say in foreign policy decisionmaking, are all questions that need to be settled. While Vice President Mike Pence has taken the lead in U.S.-Japan relations, and Jared Kushner has focused on Middle East peace, there is a real question of who within the White House will own the relationship with Erdogan.
Relations between Turkey and the United States have always been dynamic and reflective of the historical moment in time. From the zenith of President Obama’s first trip to Turkey in 2009, where he referred to the U.S.-Turkey relationship as a “model partnership,” to the nadir of the failed July 15 coup attempt last year, where Ankara demanded the extradition of Fethullah Gulen—a U.S. permanent resident since the 1990s—the roller coaster of U.S.-Turkish relations continued to the very end of the Obama administration, and is once again on the move under President Trump.
Even during the most challenging of times, Turkey’s geography and value have always been too great for America to ignore. Considering Iraq, Iran and Syria, to name just the most immediate neighbors with which it shares the longest borders, Ankara sits in the middle of one of the most volatile and strategic theaters for American foreign policy, and has always offered a bastion of stability. Notwithstanding recent domestic challenges, Turkey still amounts to America’s most important regional ally and, particularly in a new era of transactional bilateralism, offers short-term wins for a new administration that may be less interested in long-term grand strategies.
For its part, Turkey sees the Trump administration as a fresh start and great opportunity for strengthening bilateral cooperation. Ankara held out high hopes for a more engaged administration, after years of the more hands-off, lead-from-behind perspective adopted by the Obama administration. Erdogan has expressed a willingness to work with the Trump administration to accomplish a more “action-oriented” U.S. policy in the Middle East, and vented frustration with Obama’s hands-off strategy in the Middle East, which did not allow military action in Syria and Iraq. Erdogan’s main complaints with the Obama administration boiled down to a lack of support for Turkey in fighting terrorist organizations in the Middle East, particularly the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or PKK.