Trump and the (Liberal) International Order
Apart from pure national-security responsibilities, the administration’s approach to international order is uneven. The Trump administration explicitly rejects multilateralism. Whereas the Obama administration believed in multilateralism as a matter of principle, the Trump administration is inherently skeptical. Though the NSS recognizes the role of international institutions, Trump’s own approach is transactional at best. He favors bilateral deals, placing national sovereignty above multilateral institutions. The administration has already sought to cut funds from the UN. It has walked away from such multilateral deals as the Paris climate agreement.
The NSS contends that the traditional global-economic system no longer serves American interests, paving the way for more unilateral and protectionist policies. Having already withdrawn from the Trans-Pacific Partnership, halted negotiations with the EU on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and refused to nominate judges to the WTO’s appellate body, the Trump administration is abandoning the efforts that previous U.S. administrations made to shape the global economic system. Nor does the Trump administration seem to distinguish between allies, like Germany, and competitors, like China, when it comes to messaging on trade. Aimed at a domestic audience, Trump’s rhetoric on trade does have a clear foreign-policy logic.
The Trump administration’s plan to impose new economic penalties on China, including a recent unilateral tariff on solar panels, has been carried out with little or no consultation with European and Asian partners. Rather than forging a common front to press Beijing to open its markets and to respect intellectual property, the United States seems more interested in unilateral counter-moves against perceived trade cheaters like China. Washington’s traditional role in upholding the multilateral economic system is clearly wavering. The general diminishment in American diplomacy, reflected in budget cuts and unfilled positions at the State Department, confirms the image of a White House drawn to unilateral action.
The Trump administration’s most consequential departure from the past has been the downgrading of liberal values in its foreign policy. Although the NSS states that the United States will continue to promote democracy overseas, the Trump administration’s efforts to do so have so far proven either half-hearted or insincere.
Secretary Rex Tillerson has argued that advocating human rights “creates obstacles” to U.S. security and economic interests. President Trump has repeatedly expressed his admiration for autocratic strongmen. He has praised Xi Jinping’s “extraordinary elevation” by the Chinese Communist Party, congratulated Erdogan on winning a controversial referendum and praised Duterte’s thuggish manner of combating the drug trade. He has repeatedly expressed his praise and admiration for Vladimir Putin. Washington’s failure to pressure governments in Central and Eastern Europe risks emboldening these regimes in their movement away from liberal democracy.
On his foreign trips, Trump does not speak out about democracy and human-rights violations, as had often been the case with previous American presidents, while Trump’s acrimonious language about the press and judicial system within the United States has been seized on by foreign leaders eager to curtail freedom of the press and to liberate themselves from the separation of powers in their own countries. This development is without precedent in the history of American foreign policy.
In sum, the United States under Donald Trump has narrowed its concept of international order. It has removed one of the two adjectives from the “liberal international order.” The Trump administration will continue to defend—aggressively perhaps—the existing security order against great power competition from China and Russia and threats from rogue states like Iran and North Korea. Yet it will not protect or even aspire to perpetuate the liberal international order. By deeming it an impediment to the American national interest, Trump is undermining the liberal essence within the liberal international order. European allies should scrutinize the crucial distinction between the “minimalist” international order and the “maximalist” liberal international order in Trump’s Washington. Europe can rely and build on the order that matters to the Trump administration, but to defend and uphold the liberal international order Europe will increasingly need to rely on its own resources, its own ideals and its own initiative.
Erik Brattberg is the director of the Europe Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, DC.