A Big Mistake: America Teaming Up with Iran in Iraq
On Tuesday, the jihadist group ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham) launched a long-planned assault on Iraq, seizing control of Mosul, the country’s second largest city, after taking large parts of the central city of Fallujah and nearby Ramadi in December 2013. ISIS is believed to have no more than 6,000-10,000 fighters in Iraq, yet it has captured large chunks of territory in lightning speed with relative ease. Iraqi soldiers have fled and capitulated in the tens of thousands. Only the Kurdish Peshmerga aggressively pushed back and were able to bring Kirkuk and some parts of Kirkuk province under their control.
Over the past five days, ISIS has strengthened its grip on the country and pressed south to Baghdad. On Wednesday, it captured Tikrit, Saddam Hussein’s home town, and targeted Samarra and oil-rich Baji. The town of Dhuluiyah and the Muatassam area, just fifty-six miles from the capital city Baghdad, are also thought to be under its authority (although Iraqi security forces may have already retaken the area). Although the Iraqi army reports that it has slowed down the advance of ISIS, the jihadists continue to make gains and just yesterday seized control of Tal Afar in northern Iraq.
It seems that ISIS has turned into some kind of caliphate protostate. Its territory stretches across 360 miles from Raqqa in Syria to Fallujah, Mosul and Tikrit in Iraq. This equates to a domain roughly the size of Jordan. As it currently stands, ISIS holds at least three border posts between Syria and Turkey and several on Syria’s border with Iraq. On Wednesday, the jihadists symbolically demolished the border crossing between Iraq and Syria and its notorious black flag now flies between Ninawah in Iraq and Hasakah in Syria. Sykes-Picot is disappearing in front of our eyes and the concept of nation-state is giving way to caliphate.
The unfolding crisis in Iraq poses a serious challenge to regional stability, as well as global security. Hundreds of Americans and Europeans are thought to be fighting alongside ISIS and other jihadist groups in Syria and Iraq and terrorism experts classify them as one of the most profound threats to Western security since 9/11. Just yesterday, the German police jailed a French national associated with ISIS and today the Spanish authorities arrested eight people connected to the terrorist group.
It is thus of critical importance not only for the Middle East, but for our own national interest to understand the root of ISIS’s rise to power.
Unfortunately, many commentators too quickly pinned the current crisis on the decision to invade Iraq in 2003, ignoring eleven years of turbulent history in between. We have to remember that when we withdrew from Iraq, Al Qaeda and its affiliates had been all but eradicated. We also have to carefully distinguish between ISI in Iraq and ISIS in Syria. While ISI was part of the Al Qaeda network in Iraq, ISIS originated in Syria and operates independently from Al Qaeda. The circumstances which have given rise to ISIS are not so much related to the intervention in 2003, as to the brutal war and nonintervention in Syria; and the main source of ISIS’s success in Iraq today is Iraqi Prime Minister al-Maliki’s politics of sectarianism.
The mass slaughter in Syria has been going on for over three years, and over 150,000 people have already been killed. While jihadist groups did not start the revolution, they have hijacked the opposition and the moderate rebels have been starved of support almost to the point of irrelevance. ISIS was one of the jihadist groups that surfaced in Syria under the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who was in U.S. custody until 2009. Unlike other jihadi commanders, Baghdadi is extremely careful and likes to keep a low profile. Yet his strategy is of such ruthlessness and brutality that his group has been deemed too extreme even for Al Qaeda, whose central leadership publicly disavowed them. Mass beheadings and public crucifixions have become its trademark and its reign of terror has spread to important strategic positions inside of Syria. Indeed, the assault on Iraq was planned and originated in the Syrian town of Raqqa.