The B-58 Hustler: America's Cold War Nuclear Bomber Blunder
In an era of fantastic aircraft, the B-58 Hustler was one of the most visually striking warplanes ever to fly. Its delta wing, giant engines, and remarkable performance gave rise to the myth that pilots could literally tear the wings off the bomber if they flew it too fast.
That wasn’t true, but the B-58 was nevertheless a difficult plane to fly. Although an engineering marvel, the Hustler suffered from appalling accident rate, high maintenance costs, and an obsolete mission profile. It would remain in service for only a decade, a dead-end in strategic bomber development.
The Hustler was a direct successor to the B-47 Stratojet in the medium bomber role. Medium bombers were expected to attack the Soviet Union from overseas bases. By the time the Hustler entered service, however, the distinction between the medium and the heavy bomber had narrowed, however. The advent of aerial refueling, combined with Air Force concerns about the security of forward airbases and the concerns of U.S. allies over the deployment of strategic nuclear weapons on their territory, meant that the B-58 would operate strictly from U.S. bases.
Convair had broken into the bombing game with the B-36 Peacemaker, which played the role of the USAF’s long-range strategic bomber for much of the 1950s. Huge and slow, the B-36 could cross oceans while carrying a hydrogen bomb, making it central to the U.S. nuclear deterrent. However, the appearance of the MiG-15 and similar Soviet interceptors rendered the B-36 utterly obsolete, and threatened to create problems even for newer jet aircraft such as the B-47 and the B-52.
The Hustler bore no resemblance to the Peacemaker. Delta-winged with four huge engines, the B-58 could break Mach 2 while carrying a combination nuclear weapon/fuel tank slung under its belly. Launched from U.S. bases and supported by a ring of KC-135 tankers, the B-58 would penetrate Soviet airspace at high speed and high altitude, evading Soviet interceptor and delivering its nuclear load to a variety of different targets. The Hustler first flew in 1956, and entered operational service in 1960. In all, the Air Force acquired 116 B-58s at a unit cost similar to the B-52 Stratofortress.
Like many of the early delta wing aircraft, the Hustler was a monster to fly. The plane had eccentric landing, take-off, stall and spin characteristics, which pilots often struggled to master. The Hustler also had an ambitious set of controls that did not always accord with the experience and capabilities of its pilots. The maintenance demands of the aircraft, which had many specialized systems, were also extremely high.
All of this led to a startling accident rate. Twenty-six of the 116 Hustlers were lost to accidents, resulting in a total loss rate of 22.4 percent over a service life of ten years. Although many aircraft in the early years of jet aviation suffered high accident rates, the Hustler stood out as one of the worst offenders, especially given the high unit cost. As one commentator wrote, if the USAF had not retired the B-58, the entire fleet would have attrited away to nothing in an alarmingly short period of time.
Like the B-36 and the B-47, the B-58 never dropped a bomb in anger. The Hustler never contributed to the Vietnam War, although it continued in its nuclear role while older B-52 dropped conventional ordnance on North Vietnam. The B-58 could theoretically have taken on a conventional bombing role, although its great speed and poor handling at low altitudes made it difficult to drop bombs with much accuracy.
Although the Air Force emphasized the need for a high-performance penetration bomber, it never particularly loved the B-58. General Curtis Lemay effectively turned around the deficiencies of the B-58 in order to argue for the B-70 Valkyrie, an even faster, higher flying bomber that would replace the B-52. For good or ill, however, the B-70 fell victim to the same forces as the B-58; a Secretary of Defense convinced that high altitude SAMs and fast, missile-carrying interceptors would render the bomber obsolete.