The F-22 Raptor Is the World's Best Fighter (And It Has a Secret Weapon That Is Out in the Open)
“The Raptor pilots—while they are a critical component—are still just one part of a team. Nothing is going to happen unless the maintainers can get the airplanes running; the LO [low observable] maintainers can keep the skin healthy; the munitions guys can build the bombs and the missiles; and the weapons loader can get them on the airplane; the air traffic controllers can launch them; intel folks can prep the pilots for the mission they are going to do. All those things have to come together, and if they get out of synch, none of it works,” Fesler told me as he showed me around the flight line. “This exercise was designed to take us out of an in-garrison steady state operation, rapidly mobilize, deploy, regenerate the aircraft, and then turn right into sustained combat employment. There is no other way to train to that.”
As Fesler explained to me, the idea behind the exercise was to take the six squadrons that make up the wing—plus personnel from the Virginia Air National Guard’s 192d Fighter Wing and the supporting units—and deploy them to a different part of the base while simulating austere conditions. For the purposes of the exercise, the Wing was given ‘prepare to deploy’ orders for a particular theatre and told to get ready to leave with very little notice. Once ordered to deploy, the Wing and its personnel then had to package all of the support equipment and configure their aircraft for that particular theatre and then deploy within a few hours. Indeed, during my visit, the Wing’s two F-22 squadrons had deployed to two different parts of the base and were operating out of tents on the flight line. “It’s very carefully orchestrated,” Fesler said.
The Ultimate ‘Insurance’ Policy:
In many ways, the Raptor is the U.S. Air Force’s insurance policy. While the rest of the Air Force has been preparing for and fighting low-intensity warfare scenarios, as an elite vanguard force, the Raptor fleet has focused almost exclusively on defeating the highest-end threats. “We’ve been focused on the high-end threat all along,” Fesler said. “In fact, the departure from standard for us is the times we go over to OIR [Operation Inherent Resolve—the counter ISIS campaign] and do the close air support type missions over there. Low intensity conflict is not our bread and butter.”
Even since the earliest days when the Raptor entered operational testing 2002, the F-22 has performed incredibly well in simulated combat—amassing lopsided victories in the air. Even when flying against the most challenging simulated threats—advanced Russian fighters such as the Su-35 and S-300V4 and S-400—it is exceedingly rare for an F-22 to be ‘shot down’. “Losses in the F-22 are a rarity regardless of the threat we’re training against,” Fesler said.
Why The ‘Raptor’ Dominates:
Indeed, one of the problems for the F-22 is to generate enough targets and a tough enough threat so that pilots get some useful training. Another problem is that the jet is so capable—in terms of its sheer speed, acceleration, stealth, sensors and maneuverability—it actually compensates for tactical errors.
“It makes up for a lot of shortcomings in the pilot side, you can have a really bad day and airplane will still do phenomenally well,” said one senior F-22 pilot who goes by the callsign ‘Crash’. “Just because you win the fight, doesn’t mean you did well. Just because you lost, doesn’t mean you screwed up. We build scenarios to track that, so there are times when guys will die in training when they did everything right and there is other times dudes are screwing up left and right and they’re completely successful. But in this airplane it is much easier to survive.”
In order to train pilots for the exercise, the 1st Fighter Wing uses a combination of T-38 trainers and other F-22s to act as “Red Air”—replicating “advanced Flanker” level threats. Meanwhile, the F-22’s onboard computers and data-links replicate enemy surface-to-air threats such as the S-300V4 and S-400. During one sortie, the Raptor flew against a combination of “advanced Flankers” and a very robust surface threat—a young 1st Fighter Wing F-22 weapon officer by the callsign of ‘Bullet’ told me. Bullet—as a graduate of the Air Force’s elite Weapons School—was one of the lead planners for the exercise.
“Typically, we’ll train against the biggest and baddest threats because we want to train against the newest threat on the block,” Bullet told me. “What’s the worst case scenario so that we can employ how we would—because when we train to that high level and into actual combat and it’s not at that high level, we’re not as task saturated. It’s a lot easier for us to manage.”
Because the jet is so capable—and the pilots are the elite of the elite—the ‘Red Air’ has to effectively overwhelm the Raptors with sheer numbers. Indeed, Crash described one scenario where four F-22s took on ten “forth-gen” enemy aircraft–similar to a Su-35—simultaneously (and which ‘regenerate’—or come back to life). “A little bit more than your typical fourth-gen,” Crash said. “We’re not training against things that are not operational yet. We’re fighting against the most advanced operational threats we can.”
Typically, the Blue F-22s will slaughter the enemy from long-range. Indeed, as Fesler notes, if an enemy aircraft has survived to enter the “merge”—or visual range combat—and finds a Raptor, something has gone terribly wrong. That usually leads to an intensive debrief to understand what went wrong. Indeed, all of the pilots I spoke to unanimously told me that the debrief is the most important part of a training sortie. Nonetheless, F-22 pilots train extensively for a visual range fight. “We usually train full-up versus full-up,” Crash said. “We assume that a Western-trained F-22 is going to be the most challenging threat we’re going to go against.”