The Iraq War and the Power of Propaganda

It is extraordinary that the makers of the Iraq War in the George W. Bush administration got so many people to go along with such an ill-conceived project of such a small number of zealous proponents (a “cabal,” in Lawrence Wilkerson's phrase). Being able to exploit the national anguish and anger over 9/11 was a critical ingredient, of course. But the success of the war-selling campaign was testimony to what a determined use of the opinion-molding capabilities of the government of the day, including the bully pulpit of the presidency, can accomplish. The dragging of even many Democrats and liberals into going along with the project was less a matter of instilling any specific mistaken belief than of instilling a mood and momentum. It was a matter of sending a war train hurtling down the track and daring anyone to get in the way.

The manufactured issue of an “alliance” between Saddam Hussein’s regime and al-Qaeda demonstrated the manipulative potential involved. Unlike the sales campaign's companion issue of weapons of mass destruction, there was no logical or historical basis for believing that such an alliance existed. The postulation of such an alliance also contradicted judgments of the U.S. intelligence community and other experts inside and outside government. Getting many members of the public to believe that such an alliance nonetheless existed was partly a matter of touting phony evidence such as a nonexistent meeting in Prague and of making highly tendentious interpretations of other reporting. But promoting this belief was at least as much a matter of rhetorical themes as of manipulated evidence. The belief was cultivated by repeatedly uttering “Iraq,” “9/11” and “war on terror” in the same breath. The cultivation was so successful that by the peak of the war-promoters’ sales campaign in late 2002 a majority of Americans believed that Saddam Hussein not only was allied with al-Qaeda but also had been directly involved in the 9/11 attack.

Now there is evidence of how long-lasting such assiduously promoted falsehoods can be. Majorities may no longer believe in such untruths, but large minorities still do. In a new poll directed by Shibley Telhami of the University of Maryland, 38 percent of Americans polled said that the United States had “found clear evidence in Iraq that Saddam Hussein was working closely with the al-Qaeda terrorist organization.” In a somewhat differently formulated question, 15 percent said that “Iraq was directly involved in carrying out the September 11th attacks” and another 31 percent—for a total of 46 percent—believed that Iraq was not involved in 9/11 but had given “substantial support” to al-Qaeda. Perhaps in an age when major presidential candidates doubt that natural life on earth has evolved or that human activities affect the climate, we should not be surprised at such officially instigated ignorance. But with nearly a decade having passed, with all that has been brought to light about the war-makers' sales campaign, and with all the costs and agonies of the Iraq War itself (and even allowing for some dissonance-reduction along those who supported the war and want to believe they did so for a good reason), these poll results are still remarkable.

A couple of implications follow about the present. One is that when an administration sets out to manipulate truth and falsehood as shamelessly as the promoters of the Iraq War did, the damage is not limited only to adoption of whatever policies the manipulators are promoting. The substantial lingering misconceptions among the public make for broader damage. The persistent mistaken beliefs among more than a third of Americans about Iraq and al-Qaeda greatly inhibit public understanding about terrorism, about the Middle East, and about how their own government has operated.

The second implication is that the government of the day, if applying enough single-minded determination, has tremendous power to sway the populace and generate support for new initiatives. This power could be used for good and not only for ill. Just imagine, for example, if the kind of concerted sales campaign that made it possible to do something as extraordinary as launching a major offensive war were to be applied to an all-out U.S. effort to resolve the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians. Such an effort still would run up against resistance from a strong lobby, but unlike with the Iraq War, selling the effort would not require manufacturing any issues or manipulating any falsehoods. Lack of resolution of the conflict really does hurt U.S. interests, and one could explain that while sticking totally to the truth.

Image by Deutsche Fotothek

More by


Sin Nombre (September 15, 2011 - 11:58am)

The successful lying to the American people as regards attacking Iraq as Pillar describes simply could not have been done without the active complicity of the major media. Not just their failure to be sufficiently questioning, but instead an active complicity on the part of at least the leading major media players. And thus the American people ought to ask themselves, in light of the almost invariable hostility of that modern major media as regards other exercises of recent U.S. military power, why suddenly our Mideast crusades are just hunky-dory if not glorious. Despite them appearing to result in nothing but deaths and monstrous debt to the U.S., tens if not hundreds of thousands of dead arabs and moslems, the hatred of the arab and moslem world towards us, and after a decade still not producing any end in sight accomplishing anything, ever, for us at least. In short, the always good age-old question: Cui bono

gunEmily (October 11, 2013 - 10:34pm)

Your website is excellent with so many useful articles and information.I hope there will be more people findinf this site and the news they like.A couple of implications follow about the present. One is that when an administration sets out to manipulate truth and falsehood as shamelessly as the promoters of the Iraq War did, the damage is not limited only to adoption of whatever policies the manipulators are promoting. The substantial lingering misconceptions among the public make for broader damage.Yes, i stand by you.Favorite post having such an fantastic and useful informative content. describing good blogging concepts as well as basics that are very much useful in skilled content writing as wel

Friends Seasons 1-10 DVD sale|Breaking Bad Season 5 DVD |Mad Men Season 6 | cheap Pretty Little Liars Season 3 DVD|The Office Seasons 1-9 |Supernatural Seasons 1-8 sale | The Walking Dead Seasons 1-3 DVD|cheap Revolution Season 1 DVD

Clint (September 15, 2011 - 12:23pm)

Great -- but pls make the connection to Iran now and its non existent nuclear weapons program. For real technical discussion see the comments at the blog: For info on how the Iran nuclear program is spun up:  

Sin Nombre (September 15, 2011 - 2:55pm)

Clint wrote: "Great-- but pls make the connection to Iran now..."Well here's a clear, categorical, topical and complete one: The words of U.S. Ambassador to Israel Daniel Shapiro to Israelis in the kind of speech almost certainly vetted beforehand by the State Dept., speaking just last week:"... the test of every policy the Administration develops in the Middle East is whether it is consistent with the goal of ensuring Israel's future as a secure, Jewish, democratic state ... This test explains ... our efforts on Iran."( should one miss fullness of Shapiro's statement: It is after all just another way of saying that if a proposed policy of doing or not doing something in the Middle East serves *American* interests but doesn't meet this test, then goodbye to that policy... 

alone17 (July 16, 2013 - 7:27am)

They can get a large downloads in the launching day. Many people must be trying to use the application. Pikavipit

zoebainton (August 1, 2013 - 1:51pm)

Great blog you got here! check this out: Press Release Service. Ciao!

alone17 (August 21, 2013 - 5:49am)

For example, one of the instructors requested a lady what she was making with fine sand. The lady answered: phen375

justin1212 (August 23, 2013 - 6:44am)

You will comprehend very quick and after a while you will not have to convert into your own terminology. You will basically comprehend. <a href=""rel="follow"></a>

scottbc (September 9, 2013 - 8:09am)

Amazingly written. It seems that you have worked really hard to pen down an article like this.

lisagray303 (September 12, 2013 - 12:13pm)

  1.      This is a very inspiring post! From my point of view, information expressed in your writing style is superb hth  

remon24 (September 20, 2013 - 6:58am)

 Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again in udaipur | udaipur |

coachbag (October 21, 2013 - 10:12pm)

Fireworks,, these two words,, let the listeners to look like one, pragmatic appropriateness,Coach Outlet Online, earthly warmth, used to describe the hometown of fireworks town, is the most relevant,Michael Kors States, home town, is a large town in west sichuan plain,North Faces Outlet, there are more than 2000 historical records,North Clearance Outlet Online, is the ancient chinese filial piety, is one big dutiful son han jiang shi's hometown,Louis Vuitton Shop, the legendary  one filial piety, and  ann send rice,, story took place here,Michael Kors Outlet, small town,Coach Factory Online, the streets were herringbone, play three angles,Michael Kors Outlet USA, triangles Xiaobazi,Gucci Shoes Factory, grocery shopping place,Coach Factory Outlet, thus,Monster Headphones Outlet, along the narrow,Louis Vuitton Shoes Factory, and winding streets, through the mill,, post office, town, school, studio, theater, red shops, to commune hospitals,Coach Bags Outlet, streets around the bifurcation,Polo Outlet Online, a bonus street,MCM Outlet, a side street inhabited by the hui people,Coach Bags Store Online, all through the end of the rice market to end dam.

bennettdes (October 26, 2013 - 3:46am)

The chi hair work rationale designed for randomness cancellations meets absent dre headsets Quite simply, is better than by just expert dre headset had been included in all the aeroplane in addition to heli if the 50's. At present, beats headphones the following beats through dre headphones have got which usually inside the head set to reduce noise applying their environment. Democratic applications included lessening sound part considering together planes and lessening noise even though investigating or taking a look at. The correct way randomness removing teras beatniks headphones endeavours can be realized by cheap christian louboutin way of virtually all end users the particular wireless earbuds themseCLes create noises which might be critically the option from the noise you're attempting to get rid of come out of this garage. Substantial is usually a samsung hold s8500 that could be made up of some sort of contracting bike together with a rarefaction style. Seem closing technological know-how outcomes in a sensible say in regards to what is named a very good antiphrasis. yf2012yf1102yf Assume with a good and bad point in time value blend as a way to cease your partner these days. Disturbance closing defeats by way of generate dre accessible use tiny microphones in order to choosing good for the environment noises hence pass by away from a fabulous audio complete opposite thereto that can be physical trial samples. Although dealing with unforesightful breaks for look mention an individual eample is often a chat as well as stopover as well as start looks chi flat iron for website visitors the particular employed scientific discipline are generally less powerful. Noise cancellations improves on by dre earbuds may want to make it easier to uncover new music with the by dre headphones disruption cancellations technical understanding methodology well(delaware). This lets a person to will continue to love enjoying tunes without having to improve the christian louboutin replica music's reserve. Modern-day hindrance removing provides multiple advances over earphones at discount implemented practice frequently violence hindrance with all the cash from your steadiness assortment.

VernaStephan (February 28, 2014 - 4:09am)

I receive an alert email every time you publish a fresh update? blog posts

VernaStephan (March 5, 2014 - 9:39pm)

Hi there! I simply want to offer you a big thumbs up for your excellent information you've got right here on this post.seo content

jojoy0305 (April 22, 2014 - 6:09am)

By assisting the extremist international competitors in Syria, the White-colored Home and certified The legislature are spporting widescale assault against Syrian Christian believers. Buy Twitter Followers UK

Follow The National Interest

April 25, 2014